Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is actually quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. If you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of experiencing a miscarriage, you could be wondering what caused the loss and worry about whether it will happen again. This article aims to answer the next questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What type of genetic testing can be acquired for miscarriage tissue?
How can chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different explanations why miscarriage occurs, but the most typical cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also known as “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a child to develop normally it is important that it have the right quantity of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or within an embryo or fetus could cause a female to either not become pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are due to chromosome abnormalities. This number could be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than most people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.

Most women who experience a miscarriage continue to have a healthy pregnancy rather than miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more susceptible to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience several miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage seems to be increasing. One reason for this can be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas in the past the miscarriage would have were just a unique period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many different types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also known as products of conception (POC), the most useful type of test to execute is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue can often identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.

The most common approach to chromosome analysis is named karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as for example microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. For that reason requirement, tissue that is passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or even more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. If a normal female result is found, it may be the right result for the fetus or it may be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells within the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC seems to occur in about 30% or more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is really a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but will not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more likely to receive results and the results are typically returned faster when microarray testing can be used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting an example of the mother’s blood simultaneously the miscarriage tissue is sent to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How do it help?

In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the type of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer fully the question: “Will this eventually me again?”. More often than not, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a low chance to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to research the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your family that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it can prevent the need for other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the cause of the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the explanation for a pregnancy loss can help a couple start the emotional healing process, moving at night question of “Why did this happen to me?”.

stillbirth Chromosome testing could be especially very important to patients with repeated miscarriages, as it could either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason for the miscarriages and invite their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing may be able to help increase their chances of having a successful healthy pregnancy.