Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is really quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. When you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of experiencing a miscarriage, you may be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it’ll happen again. This article aims to answer the following questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
Which kind of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How can chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different explanations why miscarriage occurs, but the most typical cause for first trimester miscarriage is a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved in a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a child to develop normally it is important that it have the right amount of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or in an embryo or fetus could cause a woman to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. This number could be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. miscarriage Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep upsurge in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common could it be?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than a lot of people think. Up to one atlanta divorce attorneys four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The opportunity of experiencing a miscarriage also increases as a mother gets older.

Nearly all women who experience a miscarriage continue to have a healthy pregnancy rather than miscarry again. However, some women seem to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage appears to be increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they’re having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas in past times the miscarriage would have appeared to be just an unusual period. Another reason could be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many different types of testing that can be done on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also known as products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to perform is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the current presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.

The most common method of chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. Because of this requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or even more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no results are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. In case a normal female result is available, it may be the right result for the fetus or it may be maternal cell contamination (MCC) where the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC appears to occur in about 30% or more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is really a new type of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; the two most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing can be in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but will not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more likely to receive results and the results are usually returned faster when microarray testing can be used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting an example of the mother’s blood simultaneously the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the kind of abnormality found can be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this eventually me again?”. Usually, chromosome abnormalities within an embryo or fetus are not inherited and have a low possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your physician to do further studies to investigate the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, in case a chromosome abnormality is identified it can prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your physician might consider to investigate the cause of the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason behind a pregnancy loss might help a couple of start the emotional healing process, moving past the question of “Why did this happen to me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially very important to patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and invite their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their likelihood of having an effective healthy pregnancy.